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The Romans took full advantage of the difficulties of the Hellenistic states, played on the fear of social revolution among the wealthy Greeks, and exploited rivalries and native rebellions, with the result that they defeated and ultimately absorbed all the Hellenistic states. Almost everywhere during the second century the increasing inability of the Greco-Macedonian ruling class to prevent internal dissolution is noticeable. Hengel, among others, have written with distinction.Natural sciences made enormous progress, and so did mathematics. The works of the great historians of the Hellenistic age (Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris, Timaeus, Agatharchidas, Phylarchus, and Posidonius) are all lost, with the exception of Polybius, and only fragments of his work remain. Research on Hellenism has been helped by archaeological discoveries, new inscriptions, and the constitution of a new branch of research, papyrology, since the beginning of the 20 However, a knowledge of the political history of Hellenism is hampered by the fragmentary nature of the surviving sources.The second edition, both in the German text and in the French translation by A. They are, however, not so important as the essential unity of Hellenistic culture.

In 1877–78 he published a second (considerably modified) edition of these three volumes under the title of Geschichte des Hellenismus (which now included the reign of Alexander). Modern scholars have recognized local trends not only in literature but also in art. Syria (the Seleucid state) was first deprived of some of its best Oriental regions by native rebellions (such as those leading to the creation of the Parthian and Bactrian states about 250 ). Macedonia, first defeated in 197, was reduced to impotence in 168 and transformed into a province in 149.Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. But research has been particularly intense and productive in the field of economic and social history (U. Except in Judea, which had an original literature in Hebrew and Aramaic even under Greek rule, the important developments in literature were all in Greek.The word Hellenism is also used to indicate more generically the cultural tradition of the Greek-speaking part of the Roman Empire between Augustus and Justinian and/or the influence of Greek civilization on Rome, Carthage, India, and other regions which were never part of the empire of Alexander. Even natives of Egypt and Babylonia wrote their histories in Greek (Manetho, Berossus; cf. The schools and the gymnasia were organized according to Greek tradition: Homer, the tragedians of the fifth century (especially Euripides), and the orators and historians of the fourth century were the models of the new classicism.

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